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MTV's True Life is now casting for "I'm a Surrogate" [Aug. 22nd, 2008|01:28 pm]
Extraordinary Conceptions

mtvtruelife08
  

Are you a young person who is acting as a surrogate mother? MTV’s True Life is looking for young people who are preparing to give birth to another couple’s baby who are interested in sharing the story of their unique pregnancy.

 

Do you enjoy being pregnant? Are you preparing to give the gift of life to a couple in need by carrying their child for nine months? Have you been a surrogate more than once, for strangers, friends, or family members? Or is this your first time carrying someone else’s baby? Does your family or significant other disagree with your decision to help other families have children by repeatedly enduring pregnancy? Or are you an intended parent, using a surrogate to carry the child that you cannot? Are you a same-sex couple desperate for a biological child of your own?

 

If you appear to be between the ages of 16 and 28, and want to share the story of your multiple pregnancy, email us at tlfall08@mtvn.com with all of the details. Be sure to include your name, location, phone number and a photo, if possible. 

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(no subject) [Mar. 28th, 2007|10:45 am]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
Expansion of Infertility Insurance Defeated

Concord – The House this morning rejected a bill to expand insurance coverage for infertility treatment up to the birth of a child, 237-115.
Rep. Casey Crane, R-Nashua, called the vote "a matter of conscience." she said that 90 percent of surgical treatments allow women to have children. "One in eight couples is begging you to allow them a chance to have a child," an emotional Crane said.
Rep. Tara Reardon, D-Concord, said, "There are no limiting parameters in this bill," such as the number of times a woman can attempt treatment and an age limitation.
Reardon called it "a very expensive mandate to benefit a few and dramatically change the insurance market." She said the costs would be at a level "the market can't afford to bear."


source:http://www.unionleader.com/article.aspx?headline=Expansion+of+infertility+insurance+defeated&articleId=85a6050d-aa5c-4584-bb46-59fe26ffb788
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(no subject) [Mar. 28th, 2007|10:44 am]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
Fertility Clinic : Egg donation and diminished fertility(2)
with Dr. Abayomi Ajayi, Nordica Fertility Center, Lagos


EGG donation allows for a genetic connection with the male partner. With egg donation, the recipient experiences the pregnancy, controls what the foetus is exposed to in-utero, bonds with the baby during the pregnancy, goes through delivery, and is able to breast feed.
As a woman, being presented with the very low likelihood for success using your own eggs due to elevated FSH levels, leaves you often initially unprepared to consider egg donation, but the availability of egg donation may help relieve the pressure of the “biologic clock.”
Since a woman has an excellent chance to achieve a pregnancy with donor eggs whether she is 35 or 50 years of age, she and her husband or partner can take the time to decide whether or not it is the right option for her. She can continue to try and conceive on her own, knowing that she can always consider egg donation in the future with no negative impact on her chance for success.
It is often very helpful for couples considering egg donation to meet with a therapist who has experience in this area. It may take patients months or even a year from the time they are initially presented with the option of egg donation before they are ready to proceed.Women planning to pursue pregnancy with egg donation should have a thorough medical evaluation, particularly as they get older, to determine that pregnancy will not cause significant health risks.
The couple should have psychological counseling to discuss the many issues that are unique to pregnancy with donor gametes. These issues may include choice of an anonymous or known, who if anyone to tell about the donor process, whether and when to consider telling the child, etc.
Usually, we suggest that the woman undergo a “test” cycle to determine what form and dose of oestrogen is most appropriate to prepare her uterine lining to receive the embryo. The uterus should also be evaluated for structural abnormalities (fibroids, polyps, or scar tissue) that could decrease the likelihood of implantation.Finding and selecting an egg donor is a major part of the process. While some couples will choose to use a donor who is a friend or relative, most couples may not know how to go about getting one. But fertility centers often have egg donors available as part of their egg donation programme.
In general a donor should be under 35. Donors are screened for infectious diseases (including HIV and hepatitis amongst others), medical disorders, genetic disorders as well as psychological stability. MWe also measure FSH levels in the egg donors.
In all respects, to become an egg donor, I often advise that you need to be a healthy woman between the ages of 21 and 33. Often, when you visit the fertility center, you may be asked to complete a questionnaire that asks specific questions about your medical and personal history. You may also be asked to complete medical and psychological screening.
The purpose of all this careful process is to help determine the degree of medical and genetic appropriateness to become a donor, and that egg donation would not be medically or emotionally harmful in any way.Of course all this information is completely confidential, but the patient is required to pay for all screening tests or consultations.

source:http://www.vanguardngr.com/articles/2002/features/health/gh727032007.html
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(no subject) [Mar. 28th, 2007|10:43 am]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
Boy Story


YOU may be surprised to know that when it comes to infertility, men and women are pretty equal. So why is talk about male infertility so rare?
When you're a woman and you hit your 30s, IVF suddenly seems to turn from the stuff magazine articles are made of to a regular conversation among your girlfriends.
The fact is, once you reach a certain age, most women know someone who's doing IVF, has done it or considering giving it a try.
Blame it on not yet meeting Mr Right, even blame it on your bank balance, but more of us are not in a situation where we can consider having children until later in life, and often it's just too late.
It's a fact that's put infertility on the radar for many women. But can the same be said for the men in our lives?
How many men do you know who even think about their fertility, much less feel concerned about it?
The Fertility Society of Australia conducted a national survey last year on fertility.
It discovered that only two per cent of the people interviewed thought that male infertility was the reason behind couples seeking medical help to conceive.
Put that another way and it sounds more dire; 98 per cent of us think that female, or gynaecological, problems are always at the heart of conception difficulties. "I think it's a very common misconception," says Professor Gab Kovacs, the Monash IVF national medical director. "You wouldn't believe the number of couples who, once they've investigated everything from the female side of things, putting her through all of the tests and practically making her jump through hoops, discover that the problem lies with the male. "Most people just assume that infertility is predominantly a female problem. It's partly because men assume that if all other aspects of their masculinity are in place, then there's no way there could be a problem with their sperm.
"Men just don't want to acknowledge that their fertility might be in question." Dr Moira O'Bryan, a scientist from the Monash Institute of Medical Research who was recently awarded an accolade from the Society of Reproductive Biology for her work in the area, agrees:
"People just don't talk about male infertility. It's my experience that people think it's more socially acceptable for a woman to be infertile than it is for a man. Somehow it does make them feel less manly. Unfortunately I also think it's true that not enough is being said about it - as a problem it seems relatively low on the agenda." The facts and figures In truth, male infertility is almost as prevalent as female infertility. According to figures compiled by Andrology Australia, an organisation dedicated to promoting male reproductive health, around one in eight couples are considered infertile and for about one in five affected couples the problem lies with the male partner.
In fact, it's estimated that one in 20 Australian men has some kind of fertility problem. They're figures that Kovacs has experienced first-hand. "In about one-third of the couples who visit me the problem lies with the female, another third with the male, another third due to a bit of both and the remaining 10 per cent is unknown." In line with this is the fact that male infertility is the underlying reason behind 40 per cent of the IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies that occur each year in this country. Once you consider the figures, it's obvious that infertility is far from being just a female concern. Cause and effect So what are the leading causes of male infertility? While there are a number of factors at play, a big piece of the puzzle comes down to age.
While a 20-something woman has a 20 per cent chance of falling pregnant each month, fertility starts to decline at around age 31, so that by the time we celebrate our 35th birthday, the average woman's fertility has already dropped by about 50 per cent.
At 40, our fertility is around 10 per cent of what it was when we were 25, and for most women there's only a one per cent chance of falling pregnant each month when you're 44. But what about men? Does one more candle on the cake each year reduce their ability to conceive?
According to some studies the answer is yes. Collaborative research from Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health and Jerusalem's Hebrew University Hadassah Medical School found that women with partners aged 35 and older were three times as likely to miscarry than those with a partner under 25.
Meanwhile, a study from the French national health institute INSERM found that among couples undergoing fertility treatment, regardless of the women's age, pregnancy attempts were 70 per cent more likely to fail when the man was 40 or older than if he were younger than 30. Neither Kovacs nor O'Bryan believe that age is the main cause of male infertility.
"There is a slight decrease in a male's fertility with age, but it's nowhere near as significant as it is for women," says Kovacs.
"Probably the most common cause of male infertility is a problem with sperm production - so the testes either aren't making enough sperm or the sperm that is being produced, doesn't work properly. This can be caused by a number of things." Another common cause is an obstruction in the flow of sperm, something that affects about 15 per cent of infertile men.
"That is a very common cause of male infertility these days, and, as obvious as it sounds, it often occurs because men have had vasectomies. They then decide that they'd like to have more children, so opt for a reversal which may not be successful." Taking action If you've been actively trying to conceive for a year, but still haven't hit the jackpot, O'Bryan suggests getting tested.
"And in line with what we've been talking about, it's a good idea to start with getting the male tested, or at least do it at the same time. Male tests are much less invasive, so before a female starts the process, it's a good idea to rule out the male as a possible cause." According to Andrology Australia, the good news is that one in eight infertile men will have a treatable condition that can be completely overcome, paving the way for a natural pregnancy.
In addition, 75 per cent of affected men have sperm present in their semen, but at lower rates than normal, and while IVF can often be the answer in these cases, natural pregnancies are still possible; it can just take longer to conceive. In fact, only one in nine infertile men will have untreatable male sterility. And as for whether you can take measures to protect your bloke's fertility, Kovacs has this to say.
"If you're going to have a vasectomy, make sure you store some sperm beforehand. And likewise if you have to have a cancer treatment like chemotherapy or radiotherapy, both of which can affect sperm production. It's a simple process and is inexpensive to store." Kovacs also recommends avoiding sexually transmitted infections, which can create blockages in the tubes leading sperm away from the testes.
"And look after your general health. There's good research to show that men who drink heavily can compromise their sperm count, as do heavy smokers and men who frequently use recreational drugs." For more information, visit Andrology Australia at www.andrologyaustralia.org or call 1300 303 878. Secret sperm business If you're trying to fall pregnant, and regularly use a personal lubricant during sex, then you might want to reconsider. According to some experts, lubricants act as a temporary but instant fertility killer for many couples.
Researchers from the Cleveland Clinic in the US found that after just 30 minutes of exposure, common lubricants impaired sperm mobility, by up to 98 per cent, leaving only two per cent of sperm okay and able to swim the distance.
The study also found that after a more lengthy exposure to lubricant, it wasn't just mobility that was affected - sperm DNA was also damaged.

Fertility myth ... a woman's reprodcutive systems is readily scrutinised when a couple has difficulty conceiving, but quite often problems stem from the man's sperm. / The Daily Telegraph


source: http://www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/story/0,22049,21385846-5006012,00.html
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From: http://www.itv.com/news/britain_7359ce7a60370f439166edad156f4a5e.html [Feb. 26th, 2007|05:23 pm]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
Egg donation gets green light
5.17, Wed Feb 21 2007


The Government fertility watchdog has given the go-ahead for women to donate eggs for medical research.

Until now, women have only been able to donate spare eggs produced through IVF or gynaecological treatment, such as sterilisation.

The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) approved recommendations by its Ethics and Law Committee that women who are not undergoing fertility treatment should be allowed to donate their eggs and they will receive travel expenses and a small amount of compensation for loss of earnings.

It will also be possible for donors to take part in "egg-sharing" schemes that would entitle them to cut-price In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF) treatment.

Lord Richard Harries of Pentregarth, a member of the HFEA and Nuffield Council on Bioethics, said: "We need to remind people we are not talking about earnings, we are talking about compensation up to a maximum which is not great, and is comparable to jury service."

Egg donation is vital for research into treatments for diseases such as Parkinson's and diabetes, but concerns have been raised it exposes women to potential health complications.

It can carry the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation, which can lead to kidney damage and even death, but authority members said the risks are very small.

Emily Jackson, professor of medical law at Queen Mary, University of London, said although media attention had focused on the risks, egg donation would be strictly regulated and carry far lower risks than taking part in clinical trials.

She said: "The emphasis on the risks is really regrettable because women who are about to have IVF will be under the impression it's an incredibly dangerous thing to do, but the risks are incredibly low."
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From: http://www.wsaw.com [Feb. 14th, 2007|12:16 pm]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
Infertility Breakthroughs
Posted: 4:31 AM Feb 13, 2007
Reporter: WSAW Staff


In the United States, six million women have fertility problems during what is supposed to be their “reproductive years.” One-in-five look for help. We’ll show you two new breakthroughs to make the baby-making journey a smoother one.

Playing with her twins is a dream Laura Schroeder never thought she would reach after injectible hormones, artificial insemination and more.

“We did a total of three fresh in vitro cycles and one frozen cycle in between those,” Laura says.

For two years, the 36-year-old’s life revolved around daily injections of an ovary-stimulating hormone.

“I can’t even begin to imagine – hundreds, probably over a thousand.”

A new discovery may ease that hassle in the future by reducing the number of shots. Organon, a hormone stimulator, lasts longer than current shots.

“We have smaller needles that are subcutaneous and now we’re going maybe with the once a week or once every four day shot,” said Dr. Kelle Moley of Washington University.

Dr. Moley says it is part of a trend toward making fertility treatments more patient-friendly.

And super ovulation may soon be induced by a drug that is used to fight breast cancer. FEMARA helps a woman produce more eggs.

“FEMARA, in a negative feedback manner, tells your body to produce more estrogen,” Dr. Moley says.

Two steps closer to the goal of bringing babies home.

“I would do it a thousand times over,” Laura says.

So much so that Laura’s preparing to do it all again.

If these treatments prove safe and effective, women could be using these drugs for infertility within the next year.
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From: www.news.com.au [Feb. 14th, 2007|11:38 am]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
Surrogacy advocates want level playing field
February 10, 2007 12:00am

AUSTRALIA'S own baby factory has delivered 27 tots and has 44 more on the way.

The nationwide service which matches egg donors with infertile women is now lobbying for legislative change and says the nation is in urgent need of uniform laws.
Aussie Egg Donors helps donors, recipients and surrogates to navigate Australia's varied surrogacy laws.

They have no age requirements but have a number of older members and a membership of more than 200.

"My first recipient was 51 when her baby was born," Aussie Egg Donor's co-director Rachel Kunde, 25, said.

"Most clinics have a cut off of 50 at time of treatment. There are pretty much no discriminations on our site. We allow all ages."

NSW is one of the few states where surrogacy is permitted and Aussie Egg Donors are now lobbying for universal laws across the country to make surrogacy legal.

Ms Kunde said varying laws between states had boosted membership in recent years with an increasing number of couples turning to the site for information and support.

NSW, Western Australia and the Northern Territory do not have surrogacy legislation.

In Queensland, all surrogacy arrangements are illegal and in Tasmania it is an offence to make or receive a payment and surrogacy contracts are not legally binding.

In South Australia, couples are not legally allowed to enter into a surrogacy contract and in Victoria it is virtually illegal.

Aussie Egg Donors' directors include a women based in Melbourne and another surrogate mother in New Zealand, where surrogacy is legal.
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article from signonsandiego.com [Feb. 12th, 2007|03:52 pm]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
Trade in human eggs thrives as infertile couples travel the world seeking donors


By Emily Withrow
ASSOCIATED PRESS
9:22 a.m. January 27, 2007
PARIS – Chemotherapy beat back her ovarian cancer, but took Sophie Valot's fertility with it. Her doctor said she had just one option to start a family of her own: Find an egg donor, have children and get a hysterectomy – in five years or less, or risk relapse.
But French fertility clinics were in crisis, unable to meet the demand for donated eggs. Strict egg donation laws have caused a severe shortage of donors, and backlogs at clinics reach five years. So Valot took her search abroad.
Advertisement After two trips to Spain in 2002 and 2003, Valot has two young boys and the family she always desired. She is among thousands of women and couples willing to travel and pay for eggs. A thriving global fertility industry welcomes them with open arms, promising babies.
Belgian, Spanish and Greek clinics court women on the Internet, flashing images of pregnant bellies, nursing mothers, and frolicking families. They boast large donor pools and competitive rates.
Online forums buzz with women discussing the reputations of foreign clinics and offering advice and support. Associations have sprung up across France that, for a small annual fee, help women connect with clinics abroad and provide discounts to certain centers.
American women use seasoned French organizations to hook them up with clinics in Greece or Spain. Even with air fares and hotels, the costs can be just 10 percent of treatments in the United States.
Couples looking for black donors, a rarity in any country, fly to African clinics in Cameroon or Burkina Faso.
Frozen sperm and eggs can be bought online, ordered from U.S. storage banks by phone and shipped to clinics.
Experts caution that buyers need to be careful about the sources of eggs.
“Women need to do a little checking into the background of the donor. I feel confident that there is deception out there on the part of some people who misrepresent themselves to brokers, and then brokers who don't do a thorough job checking their donors,” said Dr. Arthur Caplan, professor of bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. “We see a wide variability in success rates, which aren't always explained to customers.”
In France, treatment is free. The state foots the bill for recipients and donors, who get only the satisfaction of having helped a couple become pregnant. The government has taken a firm ethical stance against payment for eggs, arguing that human parts are not commodities.
But the ethical high road comes at a cost. French women wanting donations wait years with no guarantee they'll end up pregnant and no clear indication of where they are in line. Doctors give patients priority at their discretion. Recruiting a donor is a known strategy for jumping ahead on the list – an incentive aimed at alleviating the shortage.
In 2004, just 144 women volunteered to be egg donors in France, according to the Biomedicine Academy, the French government agency that oversees egg donation. By contrast, more than 2,000 women traveled to Greece and Spain alone for donated eggs in 2005, paying $3,300-$8,000, according to an Associated Press tally of figures from about 20 clinics in those two countries.
Spain and Greece have looser laws, allowing payment to donors. Clinics insist the compensation is not for the eggs, but for donors' time.
Donating is a lengthy commitment. It requires taking hormones every day for a month and numerous appointments, followed by an invasive, potentially painful and risky procedure to extract eggs from the ovaries. Outside of France, donors are compensated for time lost at work, transportation costs and child care. These criteria define payment, but clinics usually offer a blanket amount to any donor, regardless of individual circumstances.
Where payment is the norm, the amount varies and is largely unregulated, allowing clinics to compete for both patients and quality donors. Standard payment advertised online for donors in New York recently jumped from $5,000 to $7,000 per donation. Chicago clinics quickly followed suit. More money is sometimes offered to donors with a proven track record for producing highly fertile eggs, or for donors with hard-to-recruit ethnicities like Indian or Arab.
“I made a donation, and I hope that it resulted in someone's pregnancy,” said a French donor, Marie, who didn't want her last name published because her donation was anonymous. “I don't want to know who or where. It would bother me to know how it went, and if there were another child of mine out there.”
Donor eggs are inseminated with the partner's sperm to create embryos. Two to four of the most viable embryos are transferred into a woman's uterus. She waits two weeks, then takes a pregnancy test.
If it works, she carries the baby to term, becoming the biological – but not genetic – mother. When donations are anonymous, clinics carefully protect the secret from both sides. Many doctors hire lawyers to legally preserve the anonymity of the transaction, and some clinics even get a third party to keep their documents on file.
American clinics typically receive more applications than they can accept from women wanting to be donors, allowing them to be selective. Doctors and egg brokers offer patients eggs from educated, attractive women and an array of ethnicities.
Donors are matched with recipients by physical attributes like hair and eye color, but clinics are divided on the details women should get about their donors. American clinics offer more information, with some even allowing women to shop for donors who offer pictures and personal statements.
In Europe, clinics tend to be more restrictive. They keep more of the donors' details private, leaving mothers to play a guessing game as they watch their children grow up.
Elodie Thebaud knew nothing about her donor when she traveled to Greece from her rural home in western France. She had three embryos transferred in hopes that one would work.
“I went from nothing at all to almost too much!” joked the mother of 18-month-old triplets who cry and fight for a place in her lap. But Thebaud is all smiles and laughter.
“With three already, we'll stop here,” she said. “I think that's enough for now.”
Thebaud plans to tell her children that they came from an anonymous donor. The growing number of women turning to egg donation has helped to break down social taboos surrounding assisted reproduction technology. Self-help and children's books aim to ease family conversations on the subject.
One French association, Child of Hope, holds an annual party so egg- and sperm-donor children can meet. However, most children and their parents will never learn the identity of the genetic parents.
Thebaud figured her donor must have had blue eyes – the one physical trait common to her two daughters and son. At first she thought the eye color came from her boyfriend, whose sperm fertilized the donated eggs. Later she figured the donor must have had them as well.
“But we'll never know, will we?” she cooed to one daughter, Romane, as she hoisted the toddler onto her hip.

Associated Press Writer Jessica Bernstein-Wax in Madrid, Spain, contributed to this report.
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Uterus trasnfer [Feb. 12th, 2007|03:51 pm]
Extraordinary Conceptions
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Source: Houston Chronicle (www.chron.com)
Feb. 9, 2007, 11:28PM1st U.S. uterus transplant may be tried in '08
By NANCY MCVICARMcclatchy-tribune
TOOLS

FORT LAUDERDALE, FLA.— A team of South Florida doctors said Friday that they expect to perform their first uterus transplant sometime within the next year, a feat that has yet to be attempted in the United States.
Dr. Andreas Tzakis, who has pioneered abdominal wall and multi-organ transplants at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, said transplanting a uterus so that a woman can carry her own baby is a next logical step, just as hand transplants and face transplants have broken new ground at other medical centers.
A woman who has had her uterus removed because of fibroid tumors, postpartum hemorrhage or injury may be a candidate. The doctors have termed the condition "uterine-factor infertility." The replacement uterus would come from a woman who has died and has signed an organ donor card.
The transplant recipient would need to take anti-rejection drugs to prevent her body from trying to destroy it. The drugs are not expected to have any ill effects on the baby.
Tzakis said hundreds of women taking the drugs after kidney transplants — and about 200 taking the drugs after liver transplants — have had successful pregnancies.
Only one uterus transplant is known to have occurred, Tzakis said. That was in Saudi Arabia and the organ had to be removed about three months later because its blood supply became blocked.
Dr. George Attia, a UM reproductive endocrinologist and infertility specialist working with Tzakis' team, said he doesn't know how many women are potential candidates for the procedure.
The plan, which must first be approved by the university's institutional review board and ethics committee, calls for a donor uterus to be implanted along with all the blood vessels required. After it has had time to heal, one embryo created through mixing sperm and egg in the lab would be implanted into the new womb.
The baby would be delivered by C-section, Attia said.
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Egg Donation Process [Feb. 12th, 2007|03:50 pm]
Extraordinary Conceptions
blog_conception
source : www.kaisernetwork.org

Women who donate their eggs for stem cell research or in vitro fertilization are not at increased risk of health complications, and most of the risks are a result of the hormones used to stimulate their bodies to release more than one egg, according to a report commissioned by the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine and released Tuesday by the Institute of Medicine, Bloomberg reports. CIRM decided to assess the risk of human egg donation before administering grants under Proposition 71 to researchers who would use donated eggs (Waters, Bloomberg, 2/7).
The process of donating eggs involves inserting a thin needle through the vagina into the ovary. Prior to the usual procedure, donors undergo a course of hormone injections to help the process of obtaining five to 15 eggs (Kaiser Daily Women’s Health Policy Report, 10/02/06). These treatments can cause mild pain, slight enlargement of the ovaries and infrequent nausea in the women, Linda Giudice — chair of the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences at the University of California-San Francisco and co-chair of the IOM panel that produced the report — said. Studies of women who used hormones to provide eggs that could be used for IVF found that between 2% and 5% of the women developed ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.The report said that although most cases of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were mild and temporary, in rare cases the condition could lead to serious complications, including kidney failure or death. Fewer than 0.2% of women taking the hormones experience symptoms such as blood clots or reduce blood flow to the kidneys, and about 1.4 of every 100,000 women undergoing fertility treatments experience kidney failure, the report said. Giudice said risk related to infection, surgical complications and anesthesia also are “remarkably low” among women undergoing the procedure. Data did not show that the women are at increased risk of breast or ovarian cancer but there was too little information to assess the risk of uterine cancer, she said. Giudice added that the data are rough estimates of the risks involved in egg donation because women who have donated eggs in the past have not been tracked for long periods of time. Members of the IOM panel suggested that researchers continue tracking women who donate eggs and collect that information in a database (Bloomberg, 2/7).
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